Music is an emotional experience, and for many of us, an obsession. Hearing the right song in the right moment can create memories that last a lifetime. For you, it’s the bridge that connects you with your fans. From the initial idea to the recording, mixing, and mastering process — it takes effort to get everything just right. That’s why Apple strives to present your music in its most authentic form.

The Apple Music Style Guide helps you format music, art, and metadata to enhance the listener's experience and increase your discoverability.

To ensure your content meets Apple Music and iTunes standards, our iTunes Quality Assurance team will review your content.

Following these guidelines will make it less likely to receive a ticket and help your music get on Apple Music and iTunes more quickly.

Content Definitions




A collection of tracks


A composer writes music for instruments to play


A song, album, music video, or ringtone


Special guest(s) with a significant contribution but not significant enough to warrant the “Primary” role.

Note: The “Featuring” and “With” roles should only be used once per artist for each song/album (that is, an artist shouldn’t have the “Featuring” and “With” roles on the same song).


Category of music


Lyricists only write lyrics

Music Video

A video for a song

Native Field

The native language field for album or track metadata, such as a title or artist name


Contributors that are not heard on content such as Producer, Remixer, Engineer/Master Engineer, Composer, Songwriter, and so on

Original Release Date

Date when the album, track, or music video was first released


Original Soundtrack

Parental Advisory

Content may be inappropriate for children


Any artist, group, or instrumentalist that can be heard on an album, song, or music video


The main performing artist/band


A standalone audio recording to be used as a ringtone for iPhone


Partial segments of songs that are meant to advertise the full-length content. Advertisement tracks are defined as full or partial songs that contain additional audio meant to advertise the album, individual songs, or other content.


Artist or instrumentalist that performs a featured part of a song (that is, a solo)


An audio recording


A songwriter can compose the music and/or lyrics


The name of a song, album, music video, or ringtone as it appears on Apple Music and iTunes

Title Version

Used to differentiate from the original content title or to add information needed to identify the content. Examples: Live, Radio Edit, and Bonus Track Version


A song or music video

Track Audio Language

The language of the vocals

Style Standards and Guidelines

1. Essentials


The most critical guidelines to consider when preparing your content for delivery are:

The following kinds of content can lead to rejections:

1.1. Use of Apple Inc. Copyrighted Terms. Content that is not produced by Apple Inc. must not use Apple trademarks (including the Apple logo, Apple Inc., or Apple product names such as iPhone, Apple Music, or iTunes) in the cover art or metadata in a manner that makes the content appear to be Apple-branded.

1.2. Advertising. Metadata, audio, and cover art should not contain advertising. For example, metadata should not contain references to competitors of Apple Music or iTunes, nor to any URLs, logos, or dates for future product releases. Do not include search terms and keywords in metadata or cover art.

1.3. Editorial Corrections. Apple Music and iTunes reserve the right to correct any errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation.

1.4. Complete Albums and Tracks Required. All tracks that exist on the physical version must be delivered and the track count must match. For example, if the physical version of an album has ten tracks, and the version provided contains eight tracks, the album is incomplete. The album will be marked Partial and the Buy Album button will not be displayed on iTunes.

1.5. Track Count Limit. An album should not have more than 500 tracks.

Language and Localizations

Language-specific guidelines can be found in Europe, Russia, and Central Asia Language Guidelines and Asia-Pacific Language Guidelines sections of the guide. Here are some key considerations for languages and localization usage:

  • 1.6. Metadata Language. To ensure that accents and capitalizations appear correctly on Apple Music and iTunes, the appropriate language must be set in the metadata at the album level. Language codes should match the language of the metadata, not the audio.

  • 1.7. Track Audio Language. The appropriate audio language must be set in the metadata at the track level. Language code(s) should match the language spoken or sung in the audio. Nonlinguistic content must be flagged ‘zxx’.

  • 1.8. Localizations. Localizations enhance the discoverability of your content. Provide Artist and Title metadata in the primary language you’ve chosen for your content. Accurate localizations can be provided for all languages you have available, unless you want the metadata to appear in the primary language in all territories.

Here are two examples of localized metadata for Hebrew- and Arabic-language albums:

Field Name



Album Title

מרוץ החיים

Merotz Hachaim

Album Artist

שרית חדד

Sarit Hadad

Track Title

הגוֹרל הטוב

Hagoral Hatov

Track Artist

שרית חדד

Sarit Hadad

Track Title

אהבה בתיכי

Ahava Betochi

Track Artist

שרית חדד

Sarit Hadad

Field Name



Album Title

على فين

Ala Fain

Album Artist

ايمن معروف

Ayman Maarouf

Track Title

حبيبي ارجعلي

Habeebi Ergaali

Track Artist

ايمن معروف

Ayman Maarouf

1.9. Side-by-Side Translations. Do not use side-by-side translations in metadata. Use only one language in each entry or localization.

1.10. Emojis. Do not use emojis in titles, artist names, lyrics, or other metadata.

Editorial Hides

Unlike tickets, editorial hides cannot be fixed by a redelivery or metadata update. For the best possible customer experience, Apple Music and iTunes may hide content from the store for editorial reasons:

  • 1.11. Curated Artist. Content will be hidden using the reason Curated Artist when Apple Music has curated an artist’s page and decided there are sufficient instances of a song or catalog available.

    If delivering public domain content, send only a version created from the best available source.

  • 1.12. Repeated Submissions. Content will be hidden using the reason Repeated Submissions if multiple copies of the same content and/or audio files are submitted with a slightly different title and/or artist. Do not send duplicate versions of the same content (such as the same album with a rearranged track list, or near-identical greatest hits albums).

  • 1.13. Misleading. Content will be hidden using the reason Misleading if designed to mislead customers by mimicking popular content or search terms. This includes but is not limited to artist name, album, or song titles that are similar or identical to movie, musical theater, book, podcast, social media, studio, and TV show titles or characters. This also applies to the imagery, logos, and fonts associated with those pop culture franchises.

    Sound-alikes, cover versions, or tribute songs that sound very similar to the original, aren't accepted. Recordings that include a similar name, title, or image of a popular artist in the content title or cover art may be hidden for editorial reasons. This content may not violate copyright law, but it can cause customer confusion.

  • 1.14. Cultural Sensitivities. Content will be hidden using the reason Refusal. It is your responsibility to be knowledgable about local regulations and cultural sensitivities. Content sold must be legal and appropriate for the country or region where the content is cleared.

  • 1.15. Nazi Propaganda. Content will be hidden using the reason Refusal. Content must not depict Nazi symbolism as restricted by the Strafgesetzbuch section 86a if the content is cleared for sale in Germany (DE), Austria (AT), Switzerland (CH), or any other country or region that restricts Nazi propaganda.

    If content violating this rule is submitted, your entire catalog may be subject to suspension in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and any other applicable country or region.

  • 1.16. Other Content Not Permitted. We can hide the following content using the reason Refusal:

    • Subliminal content

    • Karaoke music videos and ringtones

    • Karaoke tracks with lead vocals or vocal versions

    • Ringtones delivered as tracks on music albums

    • DJ Mix albums delivered as a single audio file

    • Snippets and advertisement tracks

  • 1.17. Apple Music and iTunes Terms and Conditions. All music submitted to Apple Music and iTunes is bound by the Apple Media Services Terms and Conditions. The Apple Music and iTunes Service may offer interactive features that allow you to submit materials (including links to third-party content) on areas of the Apple Music and iTunes Service accessible and viewable by the public. You agree that any use by you of such features, including any materials submitted by you, shall be your sole responsibility, and shall not infringe upon or violate the rights of any other party. You also agree that these materials will not violate any laws, contribute to or encourage infringing or otherwise unlawful conduct, or otherwise be obscene, objectionable, or in poor taste.

2. Artists


2.1. Accuracy. Full, standard artist name spellings must be used for all artists. The spelling of an artist’s name must be correct and remain consistent across all content for that artist. The artist name must not include any additional information, such as role, date, instrument, former band, website, and so on. Format artist names as "First name, Last name".





Joe Satriani

Joe Satriani (Guitarist)

Includes artist’s instrument


Slash (Of Guns N’ Roses)

Includes band name

Johann Sebastian Bach

Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)

Includes birth and death dates

Joey Boy

Joey Boy โจอี้ บอย

Includes translation

Mickey Mouse

Mickey Mouse Bret Iwa

Includes voice actor’s name

2.2. Generic Artist Names. Generic artists, such as Yoga, Workout, Meditation, Baby, Christmas, Top Hits, Chorus, Orchestra, or Singer, as well as genre names like Rock, Hip Hop, or Smooth Jazz are not accepted.

Cast names for original soundtracks must be specific to a given show or production.

When you don’t have a specific artist name or are working with studio musicians, list the production house, label name, or studio as the artist name.



Original Broadway Cast of Cats

Cast of Cats

“Cabaret” 1986 London Cast

Cabaret - Cast

Bombay Music

Ultimate Chart Hits

2.3. Compound Artist. Each artist field must only contain one artist name. Watch the Avoiding Compound Artists video on iTunes Connect.

Track Title

Correct Artist Name

Incorrect Artist Name

Ebony and Ivory

Paul McCartney (Primary)

Stevie Wonder (Primary)

Paul McCartney & Stevie Wonder (Primary)

Bang Bang

Jessie J (Primary)

Ariana Grande (Primary)

Nicki Minaj (Primary)

Jessie J &

Ariana Grande & Nicki Minaj (Primary)

2.4. Reverse Compound Artist. Artists who are generally listed together as a band are not considered compound artists and must be listed together.


  • Simon & Garfunkel

  • Anderson Bruford Wakeman Howe

  • Brooks & Dunn

  • Katrina & The Waves

  • Dizzy Gillespie & His Fab Five


2.5. Primary Artist Designation. The main performing artist must be listed as Primary at album and track level.

For artists using “Meets” or “vs.,” all artists involved must be listed at the track level and identified as Primary. The terms “Meets” and “vs.” must only appear in the album or track title.

Track Title

In My Dreams (Adrima Meets Vinylshakerz) [Adrima EDM Edit]

Track Artists

Adrima (Primary)

Vinylshakerz (Primary)

Track Title

Brute (Ferry Corsten vs. Armin van Buuren)

Track Artists

Ferry Corsten (Primary)

Armin van Buuren (Primary)

A performing presenting artist must be credited at the track level and identified as Primary.

Track Title

Serious Love (Mind Fair Presents 21st Century Fox) [The Rhythm Odyssey Mix]

Track Artists

Mind Fair (Primary)

21st Century Fox (Primary)

Track Title

Electrify (Fabio XB Rework Edit) [Lange & Fabio XB Present Yves De Lacroix]

Track Artists

Yves De Lacroix (Primary)

Lange (Primary)

Fabio XB (Primary)

When artists are performing in the role of a character, the “Character” name can be used as the Primary artist. Do not use Primary role for both the Character and Performer.

2.6. Primary Artist Designation for DJ Mixes and Compilations. Albums that are a collection of different tracks mixed together or compiled by a DJ or artist must list the DJ or artist at album level and identify them as Primary.

Album Title

A State of Trance 2015

Album Artist

Armin van Buuren (Primary)

Track Title


Track Artist


Track Title

Panta Rhei

Track Artist

Armin van Buuren (Primary)

Mark Sixma (Primary)

Album Title

4 To the Floor Presents Nu Groove (DJ Mix)

Album Artist

Luke Solomon (Primary)

Track Title

Tech Trax Inc. (Xplanitory Mix) [Mixed]

Track Artist

Tech Trax Inc. (Primary)

Tracks that appear on DJ mixes or compilations should list the original artists as Primary.

2.7. Primary Artist Designation for Remixes. Remix tracks should list the original artist as Primary with the remixer assigned the remixer role.

2.8. Primary Artist Designation for Various Artists. If there are five or more Primary artists listed on the album, the album-level Primary artist should be Various Artists.

Variations or abbreviations of "Various Artists" (for example, “V/A,” “V.A.,” “Various,” “Various Artist,” or “Varios”) must not be used.

Translated versions of "Various Artists" are acceptable as long as they are consistent with the content’s language.




فنانون متنوعون

Chinese (Simplified)


Chinese (Traditional)



Verschillende artiesten


Eri esittäjiä




Verschiedene Interpreten


Διάφοροι καλλιτέχνες


אמנים שונים


Artisti Vari


Vários intérpretes


Разные исполнители


Varios Artistas


Blandade Artister




Çeşitli Sanatçılar

2.9. Various Artists at Track Level. Various Artists must not be a track-level artist.

2.10. Artist Names on Karaoke, Tribute, Japanese Orgel, Parody, and Cover Albums. For karaoke, tribute, Japanese orgel, parody, and cover albums, the name of the original artist must not be displayed in any artist field on the track level or the album level.

For example, The Billy Joel Tribute Band is not an acceptable artist name.

Karaoke must not be used as the artist name unless it is part of the legal entity name, such as The Karaoke Kangaroos or All Star Karaoke.


2.11. Crediting Special Guests or Featured Artists. Special guests or featured artists must be given the Featuring or With role. If the featured artist is the same on every track, the featured artist must also be listed at the album level.

Artists with Featuring or With roles must not be marked Primary.

Formatting of "feat." and "with" in titles must be lowercase, in English, not localized, and in parentheses or brackets. Do not use any other spelling (for example, “featuring,” “Featuring,” “Feat,” “w/,” and so on).

Track Title (feat. Artist)

Dearly Departed (feat. Esmé Patterson)

Track Title (with Artist)

That Old Black Magic (with The Dave Brubeck Trio)

Track Title (feat. Artist 1 & Artist 2)

Body Language (feat. Usher & Tinashe)

Track Title

(feat. Artist 1, Artist 2 & Artist 3)

We Dem Boyz (feat. Rick Ross, ScHoolboy Q & Nas)

Here are some additional formatting examples for Jazz:

Album Title

With the Tenors of Our Time

Album Artist

Roy Hargrove (Primary)

Track Title

Shade of Jade (feat. Joe Henderson)

Track Artist

Roy Hargrove (Primary)

Roy Hargrove (Trumpet) (Non-Primary)

Roy Hargrove (Soloist) (Non-Primary)

Joe Henderson (Tenor Saxophone) (Non-Primary)

Joe Henderson (Featuring) (Non-Primary)

Featured artist role should be used at the track level for special guest soloists.

Joe Henderson (Soloist) (Non-Primary)

Joe Henderson (Composer) (Non-Primary)

Cyrus Chestnut (Piano) (Non-Primary)

Rodney Whitaker (Double Bass) (Non-Primary)

Gregory Hutchinson (Drums) (Non-Primary)

Larry Clothier (Producer) (Non-Primary)

Ed Rak (Recording Engineer) (Non-Primary)

Troy Halderson (Mastering Engineer) (Non-Primary)

Note: If Featuring or With artist roles are used in the initial delivery, the featured artist name will automatically be added by Apple Music or iTunes to the album or track title.

Contributor Roles

2.12. Individual Band or Ensemble Members. Individual band or ensemble members and their roles must be credited at the track level. These artists should not be marked as the Primary artist at either the album or track level. For a complete list of recommended contributor roles, see the iTunes Package Music Specification.

Example: The Beatles - Rubber Soul [Album Level]

Album Title

Rubber Soul

Album Artist

The Beatles (Primary)

George Martin [Non-Primary] (Producer)

George Martin [Non-Primary] (Mixing Engineer)

Norman Smith [Non-Primary] (Studio Engineer)

Norman Smith [Non-Primary] (Mixing Engineer)

Sean Magee [Non-Primary] (Remastering Engineer)

Robert Freeman [Non-Primary] (Photography)

Example: The Beatles - “In My Life” [Track Level]

Track Title

In My Life

Track Artist

The Beatles (Primary)

John Lennon [Non-Primary] (Lead Vocals)

John Lennon [Non-Primary] (Rhythm Guitar)

John Lennon [Non-Primary] (Songwriter)

Paul McCartney [Non-Primary] (Harmony Vocals)

Paul McCartney [Non-Primary] (Bass Guitar)

George Harrison [Non-Primary] (Harmony Vocals)

George Harrison [Non-Primary] (Lead Guitar)

Ringo Starr [Non-Primary] (Drums)

George Martin [Non-Primary] (Piano)

Unknown [Non-Primary] (Bells)

2.13. Nonperforming Presenting Artists. A nonperforming presenting artist must only be named in the title and not credited at album or track level.

Album Title

Lavapalooza (Richard Cheese Presents Johnny Aloha)

Album Artist

Johnny Aloha (Primary)

Track Artist

U.S.D.A. (Primary)

Track Title

Cold Summer (Young Jeezy Presents U.S.D.A.)

2.14. Technical Personnel and Other Contributor Roles. Contributing roles, such as Producer, Recording Engineer, or Graphic Designer should be credited at the album level if consistent throughout the album. Otherwise, note these contributors at the track level. These artists should not be marked as the Primary artist at either the album or track level.

Albums with studio musicians or orchestras should credit essential instrumentalists, arrangers, conductors, and orchestra name (where appropriate) with their roles at the album/track level.

To ensure consistency, refer to Recommended Contributor Roles. If an exact role is not mentioned in this section, you can still deliver them.

Composer, Lyricist, Songwriter

2.15. Songwriters, Lyricists, Librettists, and Spoken Word. All tracks containing words should specify the appropriate roles at the track level. If a single artist has written all words or lyrics for a recording, the appropriate roles must be listed at both the album and track levels. If an artist is also a composer, credit them with the Composer role as well.

2.16. Scores for Motion Picture Soundtracks. Scores for motion picture soundtracks must credit at least one composer at the track level in the Composer role. At least one composer must be marked Primary at the track level. Each composer whose work appears on the soundtrack must be listed as Primary at the album level.

Example: Frozen (Original Motion Picture Soundtrack) [Album Level]

Album Title

Frozen (Original Motion Picture Soundtrack)

Album Artist

Robert Lopez (Primary)

Robert Lopez [Non-Primary] (Composer)

Robert Lopez [Non-Primary] (Producer)

Kristen Anderson-Lopez (Primary)

Kristen Anderson-Lopez [Non-Primary] (Composer)

Kristen Anderson-Lopez [Non-Primary] (Producer)

Christophe Beck (Primary)

Christophe Beck [Non-Primary] (Composer)

Chris Montan [Non-Primary] (Producer)

Tom MacDougall [Non-Primary] (Producer)

David Boucher [Non-Primary] (Recording Engineer)

Casey Stone [Non-Primary] (Recording Engineer)

Bob Ludwig [Non-Primary] (Mastering Engineer)

Example: Frozen - “For the First Time in Forever” [Track Level]

Track Title

For the First Time in Forever

Track Artist

Kristen Bell (Primary)

Kristen Bell [Non-Primary] (Vocals)

Idina Menzel (Primary)

Idina Menzel [Non-Primary] (Vocals)

Robert Lopez [Non-Primary] (Songwriter)

Kristen Anderson-Lopez [Non-Primary] (Songwriter)

Frozen Pit Cast Orchestra [Non-Primary] (Orchestra)

Dave Metzger [Non-Primary] (Orchestration)

Stephen Oremus [Non-Primary] (Conductor)

Stephen Oremus [Non-Primary] (Arranger)

2.17. Musical Theater. For musical theater recordings, the main composer and lyricist should be listed with the Primary role at the album level. Credit at least one composer and lyricist (where appropriate) at the track level in the Composer and Lyricist role.

Example: Lin-Manuel Miranda - Hamilton: An American Musical (Original Broadway Cast) [Album Level]

Album Title

Hamilton: An American Musical (Original Broadway Cast)

Album Artist

Lin-Manuel Miranda (Primary)

Lin-Manuel Miranda [Non-Primary] (Composer)

Lin-Manuel Miranda [Non-Primary] (Lyricist)

Lin-Manuel Miranda [Non-Primary] (Book)

Lin-Manuel Miranda [Non-Primary] (Producer)

Lin-Manuel Miranda [Non-Primary] (Arranger)

Alex Lacamoire [Non-Primary] (Musical Director)

Alex Lacamoire [Non-Primary] (Producer)

Alex Lacamoire [Non-Primary] (Arranger)

Alex Lacamoire [Non-Primary] (Orchestrator)

Alex Lacamoire [Non-Primary] (Conductor)

Thomas Kail [Non-Primary] (Director)

Scott Wasserman [Non-Primary] (Beatmaster)

Tom Coyne [Non-Primary] (Mastering Engineer)

Tim Latham [Non-Primary] (Mixing Engineer)

Derik Lee [Non-Primary] (Recording Engineer)

Questlove [Non-Primary] (Executive Producer)

Tariq Trotter [Non-Primary] (Executive Producer)

Example: Hamilton - “My Shot” [Track Level]

Track Title

My Shot

Track Artist

Lin-Manuel Miranda (Primary)

Lin-Manuel Miranda [Non-Primary] (Rap)

Lin-Manuel Miranda [Non-Primary] (Songwriter)

Anthony Ramos (Primary)

Anthony Ramos [Non-Primary] (Rap)

Daveed Diggs (Primary)

Daveed Diggs [Non-Primary] (Rap)

Okieriete Onaodowan (Primary)

Okieriete Onaodowan [Non-Primary] (Rap)

Leslie Odom, Jr. (Primary)

Leslie Odom, Jr. [Non-Primary] (Rap)

Alex Lacamoire [Non-Primary] (Keyboard)

Kurt Crowley [Non-Primary] (Keyboard)

Jonathan Dinklage [Non-Primary] (Concertmaster)

Andres Forero [Non-Primary] (Drums)

Erin Benim Mayland [Non-Primary] (Violin)

Mario Gotoh [Non-Primary] (Viola)

Richard Hammond [Non-Primary] (Bass)

Robin Macatangay [Non-Primary] (Guitar)

2.18. Other Genres. If a recording falls outside of the above-mentioned categories, but includes substantial compositional elements such as a rock “opera” or an album with an orchestra, credit the composer of the music with the Composer role at the album and track level. Do not mark as Primary.

2.19. Unknown Authorship. If the album contains selections of unknown authorship, such as a folk song or Gregorian chant, use Anonymous or Traditional as the composer. Any delivery found using this role erroneously will be hidden.

2.20. Various Composers. If there are five or more composers listed on an album, the album-level composer should be Various Composers. At least one composer should be provided at the track level.

3. Titles


3.1. Accuracy. Titles must be accurate and formatted correctly.

Do not use generic titles, such as Track 1, Track 2, or Instrumental, unless they are the actual titles of the tracks or ringtones.

3.2. Additional Information. The standard, original version of an album, track, or music video must not include any additional information in the title unless it is needed to identify the content.

For example, titles must not include Exclusive, Limited Edition, Tone, Alert Tone, Text Tone, Ringtone, Ringtone Version, E-Release, Digital Only, Digital Download, Digital Single, E-Album, 2 CD Set, With Lyrics, Clips from, Official Music Video, Full Song Video, or Full Version.

Do not submit any title version information that is already addressed with Apple Music or iTunes badges. Apple Music or iTunes display a badge or blurb for the following, so titles must not include:

  • Clean Version

  • Explicit Version

  • Apple Digital Masters




New York Eye & Ear Control

New York Eye & Ear Control (1964)

Includes release date

Dawns Welcome to the Club (feat. Ricky J)

Dawns Welcome to the Club - Album (feat. Ricky J)

Includes “Album”

I'll Be Walking Alone in a Crowd

12. I'll Be Walking Alone in a Crowd

Includes track number

Campus Girl - Single

Campus Girl (Produced By T.J. Douglas) - Single

Includes additional information at the album level


Shadow - Rock Top 40 Indie Pop

Includes search terms

Draw the Line

Aerosmith - Draw the Line

Includes artist information

3.3. Singles. An album must be identified as a single if it contains one to three songs that are less than 10 minutes each. “- Single” must appear at the end of the title. If “- Single” is not included in the title, we will add it automatically.

Note: Videos are not counted as songs.

3.4. EPs. An album must be identified as an EP if it has:

  • One to three songs with one song at least 10 minutes long and a total running time of 30 minutes or less

  • Four to six songs with a total running time of 30 minutes or less

“- EP” must appear at the end of the title. If “- EP” is not included in the title, we will add it automatically.

Note: Videos are not counted as songs.

3.5. One-Track Products. One-track products must have matching album and track titles, including any parentheses or brackets. The only exception is the addition of “- Single” in the album title. Additionally, all artist information for one-track products must be consistent across the album and track levels.

Album Title

Busy Earnin’ - Single

Track Title

Busy Earnin’

Version Information

3.6. Album Version Information. If multiple versions of an album exist, use the album title version to indicate the correct version.

If an album offers more content than the standard version of the album (for example, extra tracks or a bonus video), indicate the difference in the title. If an audio-only version of a CD+DVD is delivered to Apple Music or iTunes, the album title must include the term “Audio Version.” An album containing only music videos needs to be labeled "Video Album" in the Album title version.



Bonus Track Version

Sadecessary (Bonus Track Version)

Deluxe Edition

The Endless River (Deluxe Edition)

Extended Version

Tear the Roof Up (Extended Version)

Bonus Video Version

Mi Quimera (Bonus Video Version)

Bonus Digital Booklet Version

Fallen Leaves & Dead Sparrows (Bonus Digital Booklet Version)

Audio Version

Celebrate - Live At the SSE Hydro Glasgow (Audio Version)

3.7. Multiple Version References. Content that requires multiple explanatory references in the title (for example, live EPs, soundtracks, live albums, and so on), must have the first explanatory reference enclosed in parentheses (”( )”) with any additional references enclosed in brackets (”[ ]”). Note that by delivering content using the title version field, parentheses and brackets will be applied by Apple automatically.

Track Title

All of Me (Tiësto’s Birthday Treatment Remix) [Radio Edit]

Track Title

Numb (feat. B. o. B. & Yo Gotti) [Bonus Track]

Track Title

(Love Is Like A) Heat Wave [In the Style of Martha Reeves]

3.8. Multiple Albums and Medley Tracks. Multiple album or track titles in the title field must be separated by a slash. Note that you must place a space before and after the slash.

Album Title

The Sunset Sleeps / Hometown Gypsy - Single

Album Title

Blonde on Blonde / Blood on the Tracks / Time out of Mind

3.9. Formatting. Title formatting in a series should be consistent. Descriptors like Part and Volume should be abbreviated with “Pt.” and “Vol.” Titles should be formatted as “Title, Vol. x” and “Title, Pt. x,” where x is a number.

Album Title

Dead Presidents, Vol. 1

Track Title

The Payback, Pt. 1

3.10. Track Version Information. All track titles performed by the same artist on an album must be unique, except for different versions of the same track that are differentiated by Parental Advisory tags. To differentiate multiple versions of the same track title, use terms in parentheses or brackets such as:

  • Alternate Take (for example, 1, 2, and so on)

  • Live

  • Instrumental

  • Single Version

  • Radio Edit

  • Special Format Mix (for example, 12“ Mix)

  • Extended

  • Session Date Version (for example, 1947 Version)

  • Incomplete

  • Rehearsal

  • Breakdown

  • Male Version

Standard spellings with no abbreviations should be used for track title version information.

3.11. Rerecorded Versions. If a track is rerecorded, the track title must include “Rerecorded.” A rerecorded track may be hidden for editorial reasons if the original “hit” version is live in Apple Music or iTunes.

Album Title

In the Still of the Night (Rerecorded Version)

Track Title

In the Still of the Night (Rerecorded)

Album Title

The Legend of the Drifters (Rerecorded Version)

Track Title

Stand by Me (Rerecorded)

3.12. Remastered Versions and New Mixes of Previously Released Recordings. The year of remastering should be included in the title version to properly indicate the version of the master. For example, 2017 Remastered Version. Albums or tracks that are designated as Remastered in the title version should be delivered with the first-known release date of the original version of the recording.

In cases where an entirely new mix has been created for a previously released album, the album should also be delivered with the first-known release date of the original version of the album. The year of the new mix should also be noted. For example, 2013 Mix.

3.13. Soundtrack Version Information. Soundtracks and scores must include version information in the album title, enclosed in parentheses or brackets.

O.S.T. abbreviation should not be used as an album or song title version for scores, movies, TV, musicals, or video games.

If the tracks are compiled from different soundtracks, each track title must indicate the soundtrack (From “Soundtrack Name”).

Singles from the soundtrack should have the same album and track title in the format Track Title (From “Movie Name”).

Soundtrack remixes must not include the movie title if the track is not from the original soundtrack.

Musicals must reference the year and location of the performance or release. Do not use the word “Original” if the performance is not the initial staging or release of the production.

Album Title Version


Original Motion Picture Soundtrack

Interstellar (Original Motion Picture Soundtrack)

Original Score

Guardians of the Galaxy (Original Score)

Music Inspired By the Film

Dazed & Confused (Music Inspired by the Film)

Original Off-Broadway Cast

The Threepenny Opera (Original Off-Broadway Cast)

Original Game Soundtrack

Dragon Age Inquisition (Original Game Soundtrack)

Music from the Original TV Series

Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey (Music from the Original TV Series), Vol. 1

Music videos taken from musical films must contain a title version that refers to the film such as (From “Name of Film”).

  • Main Title (From Game of Thrones: Season 7)

  • Main Title (From The Wizard of Oz Soundtrack)

  • Flying Theme (From "E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial”)

  • Luke and Leia (From "Return of the Jedi”)

For Chinese language content, see 10.5 Format of Title Version Information for Chinese Soundtracks and Scores.

3.14. DJ Mixes Version Information. DJ Mix albums should include a title version of "DJ Mix" in the album-level version information. Mixed tracks appearing on a DJ Mix must include the title version [Mixed] after all other version information.

Album Title

Bargrooves Summer 2018 (DJ Mix)

Album Artist

Jon White (Primary)

Track Title

Can’t Get Enough! (Dr Packer Extended Remix) [Mixed]

Track Artist

Soulsearcher (Primary)

Dr Packer (Remixer)

Eric Mathews (Composer)

Gary Turner (Composer)

Marc Pomeroy (Composer)

Track Title

Caught Up (feat. Yasmeen)

[Kings of Tomorrow Remix] [Mixed]

Track Artist

Sonny Fodera (Primary)

Yasmeen (Featuring)

Kings of Tomorrow (Remixer)

Sonny Fodera (Songwriter)

Yasmeen Sulieman (Songwriter)

3.15. Remixes Collections Version Information. Albums that are a collection of remixes of the same track must indicate this in the album title. To avoid identical track titles, the titles must include enough information about the remixes to differentiate them.

If an artist is featured on the original song, the remix should be formatted as “Title (feat. Artist) [Remix].” If an artist is not featured on the original song, the remix should be formatted as “Title (Remix) [feat. Artist].”

Album Title

Dancing in the Key of Life (Remixes)

Track Title

Dancing in the Key of Life (M.I.K.E. Push Remix)

Dancing in the Key of Life (Michael Gin Remix)

Album Title

Somebody That I Used to Know (feat. Kimbra) [Tiësto Remix]

Track Title

Somebody That I Used to Know (feat. Kimbra) [Tiësto Remix]

Album Title

Alors on danse (Remixes) - EP

Track Title

Alors on danse (feat. Kanye West) [Remix]

Alors on danse (feat. Erik Hassle) [Remix]

Alors on danse (Solo Remix)

3.16. Live Recording Version Information. If the audio is from a live recording, the title version must be indicated as “Live.” Territory-specific versions (”Ao Vivo” in Portuguese, and “En Vivo” or “En Directo” in Spanish) should be used. Do not use “Live” for Standup/Comedy albums.

Live Albums, Alternate Takes, Rare Recordings, Early Recordings, Radio Broadcasts, Interviews, and other albums commonly referred to as “Bootlegs” may be hidden based on editorial discretion.

If the version includes time and venue, it should be formatted as Live at Place, Year/Date. For example:

  • One More Saturday Night (Live at Palladium, New York, 1977)

  • One More Saturday Night (Live at Red Rocks Amphitheater, Morrison, CO, 7/8/1978)

For music videos to be considered Live, audio and video must match and be from the same performance. Prerecorded audio set to different performance footage is not considered Live.

3.17. Karaoke, Tribute, Japanese Orgel, Parody, and Cover Version Information. The album title must not begin with the original artist name.

For example, “Kelly Clarkson: The Bluegrass Tribute” is not an acceptable album title. Instead, format the title as “The Bluegrass Tribute to Kelly Clarkson.”

Album Title

A Tribute to Bob Seger

Album Artists

Bob Hollis (Primary)

South by South (Primary)

Album Title

Here Comes the Sun: A Reggae Tribute to The Beatles

Album Artists

Steel Pulse (Primary)

The Burning Souls (Primary)

Track or ringtone titles for cover, orgel, parody songs, or tributes must not make reference to the original artist. Do not use phrases such as “Originally Performed By,” “In the Style of,” “Tribute to,” or “Cover of.”

Karaoke track titles can make reference to the original artist. You must use clarifying language to ensure that consumers will not think those artists are performing. You should use phrases such as “Originally Performed By... (original artist name).”

Titles of karaoke albums and tracks must indicate that they are an instrumental or karaoke version.



Karaoke Version

Grenade (Karaoke Version)

Instrumental Version

Don’t Stop Believin’ (Instrumental Version)

Version karaoké

Marguerite (Version karaoké)

3.18. Silent, Hidden, and Ghost Tracks. Silent, hidden, and ghost tracks must be clearly labeled in the track title.



Silent Track

Outro (Silent Track)

Hidden Track

A Rockin' Good Way (feat. Maceo Parker) [Hidden Track]

Ghost Track

Open My Eyes (Ghost Track)

3.19. Performance, Backing, and Split Tracks. If a track is a performance track, backing track, or split track, that information must be included in the title.

3.20. Booklet Title. Digital Booklet title should follow the format: Digital Booklet - Album title.

Casing and Accents

3.21. Nonstandard Capitalization. Titles should not be in all capitals, all lowercase, or random casing.

3.22. English Title Casing. English titles should be in title case format and follow the casing conventions as outlined in Appendix 2: Title Case. In addition, for English, words before and after a dash (-), slash (/), or colon (:) must be capitalized.

4. Genres

For a complete list of acceptable genres, see the iTunes Package Music Specification Addendum: Music, Music Video, and Ringtone Genre Codes.

Not every genre has a genre page in iTunes and the list may change at any time. You must only select genres from this list, regardless of what language your content may be in (for example, a French hip hop track should be submitted as Hip Hop/Rap). Genre names are automatically translated for each Apple Music or iTunes territory.

4.1. Accuracy. The first genre listed will be the primary genre and must be the best description for the content. A second genre is not required, but it should be used when applicable. Primary and secondary genres must not be egregiously misclassified (for example, Hip Hop/Rap in place of Children’s Music).

Note: Content will only chart in the first primary genre. Albums with Latin genres or the K-Pop genre will chart in both the primary and secondary genres.

4.2. Genre Specificity. Use the most specific primary genre that applies to your music, such as Pop in Spanish y Tropical, instead of more generic genres such as Latin or Pop.

Soundtracks, or ringtones from a soundtrack, must use Soundtrack as the primary genre.

Music from Anime must use Anime as the primary genre.

Karaoke content must use Karaoke as the primary genre. This includes backing tracks, performance tracks, or any other type of content that could be identified as Karaoke.

Fitness remixes and fitness cover versions of tracks must use the Fitness & Workout genre.

4.3. Indian Genres. Indian music must have at least one Indian genre or Indian subgenre for the album (Primary or Secondary, as applicable). The language-specific genre should be Primary for Indian soundtrack albums.

Apart from Hindi, all other Indian Regional languages have their respective genres that you should list as the Primary genre:

Assamese, Bengali, Bhojpuri, Gujarati, Haryanvi, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi, Odia, Punjabi, Rajasthani, Tamil, Telugu, and Urdu. Any regional language not found in the aforementioned list can be classified as Primary Genre Regional Indian.

The music-specific genre should be Primary for Indian pop, Indian folk, Indian classical, Devotional and Spiritual, Sufi, and Ghazals albums.

Some languages have respective primary genres that should be credited for their respective content. If a secondary genre is required, it is included in the examples below:

Hindi Movie Albums

Primary Genre


Secondary Genre


Regional Indian Movie Albums (Tamil, Telugu, Bhojpuri, and so on)

Primary Genre


Secondary Genre


Devotional and Spiritual Albums

Primary Genre

Devotional & Spiritual

Indian Pop Albums

Primary Genre

Indian Pop

Secondary Genre


Indian Folk Albums

Primary Genre

Indian Folk

Sufi Albums

Primary Genre


Ghazal Albums

Primary Genre


Indian Vocal Classical Albums (Hindustani and Carnatic Classical)

Primary Genre

Carnatic Classical

Secondary Genre


Instrumental Classical Albums

Primary Genre

Indian Classical

Secondary Genre


4.4. Classical Genres. Use classical genre for all albums that feature western classical music. This broadly includes music composed between approx A.D. 800 and today within the western art music tradition.

For classical albums, use Classical for the primary genre and include additional classical subgenres as secondary genres to provide specificity.

Example: Bach - Cello Suites Album

Primary Genre


Secondary Genre

Classical > Cello

Classical > Baroque Era

Classical > Solo Instrumental

Use the genre Classical Crossover for the following types of music:

  • Popular music performed in a classical style

  • Music from the standard classical repertoire performed in a popular style

  • Music that isn’t part of the standard classical repertoire but is performed by an artist that primarily works in, or is best known for, classical music

  • Compilations featuring both nonclassical songs as well as standard classical works which are marketed toward a nonclassical audience

  • Classical and Classical Crossover genres should not be used for albums that fall outside of the western art music tradition, including new age, soundtracks, folk, meditation, and so on

5. Original Release Dates

5.1. Accuracy. Album, track, and music video release dates must be the original date when the album, track, and music video was first released, regardless of country or region, or whether it was released digitally versus physically. This includes Deluxe Editions, Anniversary Editions, Expanded Editions, Bonus Track Editions, Remastered Editions, and so on.

6. Parental Advisory

6.1. Explicit Content Flagging. Explicit content must be flagged Explicit with a parental advisory tag. Terms like “(Explicit),” “(Explicit Version),” “(Dirty),” or “(Dirty Version)” must not be used for album, ringtone, or track titles.

6.2. Clean Version Flagging. Clean versions of audio content with an available explicit version must be flagged Clean to prevent customers from accidentally purchasing the clean version. Only flag tracks as Clean if there is a corresponding explicit version of the track.

Note: Terms like “(Clean),” “(Clean Version),” “(Edited),” or “(Edited Version)” must not be used for album, ringtone, or track titles.

6.3. Censoring Words. Album and track titles must be submitted in the original form that was intended by the artist. Explicit words are automatically censored on Apple Music and the iTunes Store (for example, F**k or S**t). Do not insert the asterisks yourself. Submitting titles and artist names with self censoring or asterisks affects customers’ ability to search for and find the content they’re looking for.

7. Artwork

7.1. Accuracy. Deliver the album’s original cover art whenever possible, and do not use generic art templates or art that doesn’t match the album you’re delivering.

The art must not be misleading (for example, prominently depicting or referencing an artist even though the artist does not perform on the album).

7.2. Quality. Images must not be blurry, pixelated, mismatched, misaligned, rotated, or have other quality issues.

7.3. Additional Information. Art must not contain website addresses, logos, or any other reference to competitors of Apple Music and iTunes.

The art must not upsell to another product and must not include references to pricing, such as “Reduced Price,” “Low Price,” “Available for $9.99,” or “For Promo Use.”

7.4. References to Physical Packaging, Digital Products, or Retailers. Art must not include references to the physical packaging (for example, CD or vinyl), digital product, or any retailers.

7.5. Pornography. Art must not contain pornography or a URL for a website that contains or links to pornography.

8. Music Videos


8.1. Quality. Music videos with poor quality (such as glitches, blurriness, incomplete video or audio, no audio, out-of-sync audio and video, and so on) will not be accepted.

8.2. Graphic Overlays. Music videos must not contain chyrons, static or scrolling lyrics, or lower-third graphics.

8.3. Release Dates or Advertisements. Music videos must not contain release dates, logos, or advertisements.

8.4. Promotional Still Image Videos. Promotional videos (such as videos displaying only the cover art and audio or slide shows) will not be accepted.

8.5. Nonstandard Music Videos. Music videos that are artist interviews, commentaries, behind the scenes, or similar in content must be bundled with a music album and cannot be delivered individually.

8.6. Teasers, Trailers, and Partial Videos. Music videos which have been shortened or edited into a promotional teaser, trailer, or partial version will not be accepted.

8.7. Subtitles. Music videos must not contain subtitles or lyrics displayed as subtitles.

8.8. Medleys. Medleys are not accepted. Music videos, including live videos, must contain only one song.


8.9. Cover Art. Music videos must use a screen capture image from the video for cover art. Other images, such as album cover art, will not be accepted.

8.10. Inactive Pixels in Cover Art. Only the active pixel area may be included in music video cover art. Music video cover art must not contain inactive pixels, black bars, or letterboxing on the outer portions of the video frames. Inactive pixels on the cover art will not be accepted and should be cropped out.

Europe, Russia, and Central Asia Language Guidelines


9.1. Accents and Characters Required. Supported languages must include all accents. For a list of supported languages, see Language Codes in the iTunes Package Music Specification.


  • Hôtel d’Angleterre

  • Révérence

  • Kärlek är ett brev skickat tusen gånger

  • Max Gazzè

  • L’uomo più furbo

  • Les plus belles chansons françaises

  • Un monstre à Paris ! (du film « Un monstre à Paris »)

For German names and titles, all characters common in German orthography must be used (for example, Ä ä, Ö ö, Ü ü, ß). Do not use digraphs.



Ihre größten Erfolge

Ihre groessten Erfolge

1000 Träume weit

1000 Traeume weit

Western Europe

9.2. Spanish and Portuguese Casing. For Spanish and Portuguese titles, you can decide on either title or sentence casing, as long as the casing is consistent throughout a given album. Capitalize the first word in parentheses or brackets.

In addition, words after a dash ( - ) or slash ( / ) should be capitalized. Words after a ( : ) should be lowercase, except for series and medleys.


  • Luz da Tua Voz (Ao Vivo)

  • Popurrí: Guitarras de media noche / Ya no me quieres / Paloma querida (En directo)

  • Sevillanas: La vuelta del camino

  • Adiós querida mía: que te vaya bien

The following Spanish words should always be in lowercase (if title casing is used, these are also the only words that should be lowercase):

















The following Portuguese words should always be in lowercase (if title casing is used, these are also the only words that should be lowercase):































9.3. Swedish, French, Italian, and Scandinavian Sentence Casing. Titles should follow the casing conventions of the language it is in. Common language locales that should be in sentence-case format are Swedish, French, Italian, and Scandinavian languages.

Note: A space before and after punctuation marks made up of two parts is required for French content.

Album Title

Track Title

L’amour dans la rue

Jonques de pêcheurs au crépuscule

Il mondo che vorrei

Les chants magnétiques

C’è chi dice no

Il mondo che vorrei

Hoppa upp!

E adesso che tocca a me

För sent för edelweiss

Kärlek är ett brev skickat tusen gånger

Swing de Paris

Sur les monts d'Auvergne

9.4. German Casing. German titles should use sentence case, and the first letter of every noun should be capitalized:

Album Title

Track Title

Was ihr wollt

Ich tu dir weh

So ist das Spiel

Dicke Mädchen haben schöne Namen

9.5. Hörspiel Formatting. Hörspiel (a German dramatized performance or reading) titles must be formatted as follows:

Album Title

Folge 103: Der Hexenschatz

Track Titles

Bibi Blocksberg Lied

Kapitel 1: Florian braucht Hilfe

Kapitel 2: Mit Sina zum Palast

Kapitel 3: Im Labyrinth der Steine

Kapitel 4: Braue den Hextrank!

Note: The language for all parts or chapters must be “Teil” or “Kapitel.”

Hörspiel that are not part of a series but may be based on a movie or TV show must be formatted as follows:

Album Title

Cars 2 (Das Original-Hörspiel zum Film)

Track Titles

Cars 2 - Teil 1

Cars 2 - Teil 2

Cars 2 - Teil 3

Cars 2 - Teil 4

Eastern Europe

9.6. Cyrillic Languages. Content in languages that use the Cyrillic alphabet should not be submitted with transliterated titles. Use Cyrillic in the native title field, English in the English localization field, and transliteration in the available phonetic field. Localizations and transliterations are not required.

Field Name

Russian (Native)

English (Localization)

Album Title

О нём

About Him

Album Artist

Ирина Дубцова

Irina Dubtsova

Track Title



Track Artist

Ирина Дубцова

Irina Dubtsova

Track Title



Track Artist

Ирина Дубцова

Irina Dubtsova

Field Name

Ukrainian (Native)

English (Localization)

Album Title



Album Artist

Океан Eльзи

Okean Elzy

Track Title

День у день

Day by Day

Track Artist

Океан Eльзи

Okean Elzy

Track Title

Зеленi очi

Green Eyes

Track Artist

Океан Eльзи

Okean Elzy

9.7. Cyrillic Casing. Titles in Cyrillic alphabet should be submitted in sentence case format.

Asia-Pacific Language Guidelines


9.8. Music Directors. All music directors must be listed. For soundtrack albums, music directors must be credited with both the Composer and Primary role at the album level. At the track level, music directors must be listed with the Composer role.

For Indian Classical albums, music directors must be listed with the Composer role on tracks. If the album contains selections of unknown authorship, such as folk songs, chants, or devotionals, use Anonymous or Traditional as the composer.

9.9. Actors. Actors should be listed in the Actor role and should not be credited as Primary on soundtrack albums. For more information, see General.

9.10. Classical Artist Roles. For classical albums, the main performers must be listed as Primary at the album and track level. Artist listings must include all relevant artists and contributors to a given song or album. For Jugalbandi albums, all the artists should be listed as Primary at the album and track level. Composers should be in the Composer role only.

9.11. Formatting of Classical Track Titles. Track titles for Indian classical music must include the lyrics, raga, tala, and Indian classical genre information (Thumri, Khayal, Tarana, and so on). Variations or abbreviations of Raga and Taal (such as, raaga, raag, rag, tal, and so on) must not be used in the album or track title. Generic titles like Bhajan, Dhun, Ragam, or Tanam are not acceptable.

Indian Classical Vocal Album

Field Name



Album Title

Worship by Music: Pandit Jasraj (Live at Indian Night Stuttgart, 1988)


Album Artist

Pandit Jasraj (Primary)


Sabir Khan (Not Primary)

Tabla player

Sultan Khan (Not Primary)

Sarangi player


Indian Classical

Primary genre


Secondary genre

Track Title

Raga Ahir Bhairav: Khayal In Slow Ek Taal Rasiya Mhara/ Khayal In Fast Teen Taal Aaj to Anand (Live)

Track title with lyrics, raga, and taal information.

Track Artist

Pandit Jasraj (Primary)


Pandit Jasraj (Primary)

Tabla player

Sultan Khan (Primary)

Sarangi player

Indian Classical Instrumental Album

Field Name



Album Title

India's Maestro of Melody: Live Concert, Vol. 7

Playlist marked ‘Live’

Album Artist

Pandit Nikhil Banerjee (Primary)

Sitar player

Anindo Chatterjee (Not Primary)

Tabla player


Indian Classical

Primary genre


Secondary genre

Track Title

Raga Maru Bihag: Alap, Jod (Live)

Track marked ‘Live’

Track Artist

Pandit Nikhil Banerjee (Primary)

Sitar player

Anindo Chatterjee (Primary)

Tabla player

Indian Classical Jugalbandi Instrumental Album

Field Name



Album Title

Jugal Bandi – Saxophone & Clarinet


Album Artist

Kadri Gopalnath (Primary)

Saxophone player

Narasimhalu Vadavati (Primary)

Clarinet player


Indian Classical

Primary genre


Secondary genre

Track Artist

Kadri Gopalnath (Primary)

Sitar player

Narasimhalu Vadavati (Primary)

Tabla player

Other Asia-Pacific Countries and Regions

10.1. Chinese Artist Localizations. Chinese content should always have the Traditional and Simplified Chinese name of the artist listed: one in the native field, and the other one in the localization field.

10.2. Chinese or Korean Artists Without Western Names. If the artist does not have a Western name, the phonetic artist name may be listed in localizations in the order of “Family Name Given Name.” The phonetic artist name may be listed in English localization:

Field Name



Album Artist


Park Ji Yoon

10.3. Chinese Localizations. Chinese language content must be submitted with both Traditional Chinese and Simplified Chinese metadata, with one language being used in the primary language field and the other in the localization field.

10.4. Phonetics. Providing phonetics enhances the discoverability of your content. Use phonetics in the phonetic fields. Use Katakana or Hiragana for Japanese, and Roman characters for the other languages. Symbols (stars, hearts, and so on) must not be used in any phonetic fields. Here are a few examples:

Bulgarian - Roman characters

Chinese - Roman characters

Japanese - Katakana/Hiragana characters

Russian - Roman characters

10.5. Format of Title Version Information for Chinese Soundtracks and Scores. When indicating the soundtrack in Chinese, the title of movie or TV drama should be enclosed in Chinese guillemets《》, irrespective of the album or track level.

Album Title English Localization

Chinese (Album Level)

Chinese (Track Level)

Dear EX (Original Motion Picture Soundtrack)


爱上你 (feat. 万芳) [电影《谁先爱上他的》主题曲]

Speed (Original TV Series)


極速青春 (劇集《極速青春》同名主題曲)

Lyrics Guidelines

Lyrics must be accurate and match the audio. This includes everything that is an integral part of the vocals. Apple may change the formatting of provided lyrics for stylistic reasons.

General Formatting

The structure of a song should dictate a lyric’s format and structure. When transcribing lyrics, it is important to separate the lyrical sections and changes within a song with line and section breaks. All lyric lines should be single-spaced and a double space should separate each stanza.

If unsure when to input a line or section break, some common identifiers are:

  • A defined chorus, verse, intro, bridge, or hook

  • Changes in the song tempo

  • Changes in how the artist delivers the lyrics (from singing to rapping)


Capitalization in your lyrics should follow traditional grammar rules. Proper nouns must be capitalized. Additionally, all lyric lines must begin with a capital letter.

Here are examples of words that must be capitalized:

  • Divinity and religious intricacies (“God,” “You,” “Him,” “Your” in religious songs)

  • Acronyms (NASA, FBI)

  • Geographical location (East Coast, Southside, etc.)

  • Title casing

  • The first letter of the first word contained in parentheses

  • Brand names


There should be no periods or commas at the end of any lyric line. Exclamation points, question marks, and quotation marks should be the only end-line punctuation and should be included as needed.

Within the line, it is most important to follow traditional grammar rules.

Additional examples of acceptable punctuation:

  • Hyphens dropped words, spelled out words, and acronyms (L-Y-R-I-C-S)

  • Parentheses background vocals should be wrapped in parentheses at the end of a line, with the first letter capitalized

  • Apostrophe for certain slang and contractual modifications (‘Rari for Ferrari)

Repeated lines

The lyrics should match the audio. If a line is repeated, it should be written out.


Until you respect me and my dogs

I’ll keep barking up the wrong tree

I’ll keep barking up the wrong tree

I’ll keep barking up the wrong tree

I’ll keep barking up the wrong tree


Until you respect me and my dogs

I’ll keep barking up the wrong tree

(Repeat x3)

Spoken Word Content

Currently, spoken word/conversational content within a song should not be transcribed.

Non-Word Vocal Sounds

Non-word vocals should be transcribed sparingly and only if they add to the content of the song, either narratively or stylistically.

Improvised scatting is considered instrumental content and should not be transcribed.

Non-lyrical, or “harmonious non-word vocal sounds,” should be transcribed.

For example: “ooh,” “ah,” “whoa,” as well as onomatopoeia such as “burr” or “skrrt.”

Do not include computer-generated sound effects in lyrics (door slamming, car horn, phone ringing, etc.)

Clean and Explicit Lyrics

The term “clean” should only be used if there is an available corresponding explicit version of the track. In clean lyrics, dropped and edited content should be represented with asterisks.

If the track is explicit, all explicit language must be transcribed as it is heard in the audio.

Audio: “I'm the motherfucking man”

Lyrics: I'm the motherfucking man

Partially or fully censored words should be completely starred out with asterisks.

Audio: “I'm the mother(bleeped out) man”

Lyrics: I'm the **** man

Audio: “I'm the (bleeped out) man”

Lyrics: I'm the **** man

Time Sync

Time sync should be applied to the exact audio version you are providing to Apple Music. Different versions of the same songs will have different time sync. To learn more about the spec, see TTML File Format.

Classical Guidelines


For standard composer names, album titles, song titles, catalog numbers, and other information for western classical music content, consult Baker’s Biographical Dictionary of Musicians, The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, or the International Music Score Library Project website.

Primary Artists

11.1. Primary Artists at the Album Level. The main artists highlighted for western classical music should be marked as Primary at the album level. For example, for a recording of:

  • Beethoven symphonies performed by a single orchestra and conductor, mark both the orchestra and conductor as Primary

  • Beethoven symphonies performed by several orchestras but with the same conductor, mark only the conductor as Primary

  • Beethoven symphonies performed by several orchestras and several conductors, mark Various Artists as Primary

  • Concertos performed by the same orchestra and conductor but featuring several soloists, mark the orchestra and the conductor as Primary

  • A collection of Schubert Art Songs (Lieder) performed by several vocalists and pianists, mark Various Artists as Primary

  • A complete opera, mark the principal vocal soloists, the orchestra, and the conductor all as Primary

For example, for the opera Falstaff mark the principal baritone soloist, the orchestra, and the conductor as Primary.

For the opera Tosca, mark the principal soprano, tenor, and baritone soloists, along with the orchestra and the conductor, as Primary.

11.2. Primary Artists at the Track Level. All artists performing on a track must be marked as Primary. Do not enter Various Artists as an artist name at the track level. For example, if a track features:

  • A violin sonata with piano accompaniment, mark both the violinist and the pianist as Primary

  • A concerto, mark the soloists, the orchestra, and the conductor all as Primary

  • An orchestra but a prominent solo appears during the track, mark the orchestra, the soloists, and the conductor all as Primary

  • A choir accompanied by piano or orchestra, mark the choir, the accompanists or orchestra, and the conductor all as Primary

  • An artist whose complete information isn’t available, as may occur with vintage recordings, provide as much artist information as possible

Only use Unknown Artist at the track level and with the Performer role. Do not mark Unknown Artist as Primary.

For an opera, mark all artists present on that track as Primary.


11.3. Use of Composer Role. At least one composer should be provided at the track level and all composers that appear on the album must be listed at the album level. If there are five or more composers listed on the album, the album-level composer should be Various Composers.

Do not use Various Composers for one-track singles or if there is only one composer on an album.

11.4. Composer as Primary. Composers may never be marked as Primary unless they are also performing as the soloist, accompanist, or conductor.

11.5. Composer for Ringtones. Ringtones of classical music must include the composer in the title. Standard nicknames for classical pieces are accepted.


  • Beethoven: Symphony No. 1

  • Beethoven: Moonlight Sonata


11.6. Album Formatting. The album title should include the composers, followed by a colon, followed by the work titles, catalog numbers, or type of works such as Sonatas or Preludes.


  • Monteverdi: Vespro della Beata Vergine, SV 206

  • Bach: Jesu, meine Freude, BWV 227 – Vivaldi: Gloria in D Major, RV 589

  • Haydn: Complete Symphonies, Vol. 1

  • Mozart: Requiem in D Minor, K. 626

  • Beethoven: Violin Concerto, Op. 61 – Brahms: Symphony No. 1, Op. 68

  • Schubert & Schumann: Piano Sonatas

  • Chopin: Preludes & Nocturnes

  • Tchaikovsky: The Nutcracker & Swan Lake (Highlights)

  • Stravinsky: Le sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring)

  • Britten: Choral Works

If an album has an exact release title, such as The Most Beloved Classical Masterworks, that title may be used.

11.7. Key Information. For information on accepted casing and spelling of keys, see Table 2: Classical Keys.

11.8. Classical Abbreviations. For accepted abbreviations of classical works, see Table 1: Standard Classical Abbreviations.

11.9. Track Formatting. Track titles must be complete, correctly formatted, and consistent.

If a track features a movement or selection from a larger work like a symphony or concerto, begin the track title with the name of the larger work. This applies even if a track contains a portion of a movement, selection, or excerpt.

If a work has an assigned catalog number, include the catalog number in the title. Catalog numbers can be found through the International Music Score Library Project.

For a piece with up to 20 movement or section numbers, you can use Roman numerals, such as XIV or XX. If a piece contains 21 or more movements or sections, use Arabic numerals in the form No. 1, No. 2, and so on.


  • Keyboard Concerto No. 5 in F Minor, BWV 1056: III. Presto

  • Serenade in G Major, K. 525 “Eine kleine Nachtmusik”: I. Allegro (Excerpt)

  • Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67: I. Allegro con brio

  • Piano Sonata No. 14 in C-Sharp Minor, Op. 27 No. 2 “Moonlight”: I. Adagio sostenuto

  • Die Winterreise, D. 911: No. 24, Der Leiermann

  • 1812 Overture, Op. 49 (Excerpt: Finale)

  • Three Lyric Pieces, Op. 47: No. 1, Summer Song

  • L'isle joyeuse, L. 106

Use hyphens to indicate multiple sections or movements within one track, for example:

  • String Quartet No. 1 in G Major, K. 80: III. Minuet - Trio

  • Pictures at an Exhibition: Promenade - The Gnome

Use colons to separate the title of a work from the title of a movement or selection, for example:

  • Cello Suite No. 1 in G Major, BWV 1007: I. Prelude

  • Requiem, Op. 48: In paradisum

Use quotation marks to indicate the common nickname of a work, such as:

  • Variations on an Original Theme, Op. 36 “Enigma”: Var. IX. Nimrod

The following group of tracks are consistently formatted:

  • Piano Concerto in G Major, M. 83: I. Allegramente

  • Piano Concerto in G Major, M. 83: II. Adagio

  • Piano Concerto in G Major, M. 83: III. Presto

The following group of tracks are not consistently formatted:

  • Piano Concerto in G, M. 83: I. Allegramente

  • Concerto for Piano and Orchestra in G Major, M. 83: 2. Adagio

  • Concerto in G, M. 83: Presto

The following group of tracks are consistently formatted:

  • Orchestral Suite No. 1 in C Major, BWV 1066

  • Orchestral Suite No. 2 in B Minor, BWV 1067

  • Orchestral Suite No. 3 in D Major, BWV 1068

The following group of tracks are not consistently formatted:

  • Orchestral Suite No. 1 in C Major, BWV 1066

  • Suite for Orchestra in B Minor, BWV 1067

  • Suite pour orchestre n°3 en Ré Majeur, bwv 1068

11.10. Opera Formatting. The track title for a selection from an opera should be consistent and start with the name of the opera, followed by a colon, followed by the selection title. For recordings of a complete opera, include act and scene information after the opera title but before the colon and selection title. One-act operas which are through-composed are excluded from this rule. For example:

Opera Selection Titles:

  • Don Giovanni, K. 527: Il mio tesoro

  • La traviata: Libiamo, libiamo… (“Brindisi”)

  • Tosca: Vissi d’arte

Complete Opera Titles:

  • Falstaff, Act III Scene 2: Un poco di pausa

  • Falstaff, Act III Scene 2: Ogni sorta di gente dozzinale

  • Falstaff, Act III Scene 2: Tutto nel mondo è burla

If an album of opera selections includes character information for one title, the information should be included for all other titles. For example:

  • La bohème, Act II: Quando m'en vo (Musetta)

  • Turandot, Act III: Nessun dorma (Calaf)

  • The Magic Flute, K. 620, Act II: O Isis und Osiris (Sarastro und Chor)

  • A Midsummer Night's Dream, Op. 64: Now until the Break of Day (Oberon, Tytania, Puck, Fairies)

11.11. Classical Crossover Formatting. Track titles for Classical Crossover genre content can start with the selection, movement, or popular title of a work. Major work titles and catalog numbers must still be included but may be presented at the end of the title within parentheses. Only use this relaxed formatting on classical-crossover albums.


  • Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy (From “The Nutcracker”, Op. 71)

  • Eine kleine Nachtmusik (First movement from Serenade in G Major, K. 525)

  • Nessun dorma (From the Opera “Turandot”)

  • Flight of the Bumblebee (From the Opera “The Tale of Tsar Saltan”)

  • Moonlight Sonata (First Movement from Piano Sonata No. 14, Op. 27 No. 2)

11.12. Works. If grouping songs together as a work, such as a concerto or symphony, at least two songs must be included in the work. Do not group incomplete selections from a larger piece of music together as a work.

11.13. Recording Dates. If the album or track title contains the recording date, use the following format: title, followed by the word “Recorded” and the year recorded in parentheses.


  • Mozart: Die Zauberflöte, K. 620 (Recorded 1954)

11.14. Versions, Arrangements, and Transcriptions. If a work has been altered from the original composition, this must be noted at the end of the title. For example, “Gianni Schicchi: O mio babbino caro (Arr. for Piano).”

For transcriptions which are commonly attributed to the transcriber, list transcriber in Composer role. This only applies to pieces which are generally attributed to the transcriber in common usage.

Most Liszt transcriptions are commonly associated with Liszt rather than the original composer. For these works, Liszt should be credited in Composer role and original composer listed in the track title.


  • Lohengrin: Elsas Brautzug zum Münster (After Richard Wagner), S. 445 - credit Franz Liszt as composer

  • Il Trovatore: Miserere (After Giuseppe Verdi), S. 433 - credit Franz Liszt as composer


Appendix 1: Standards and Abbreviations

Table 1: Standard Classical Abbreviations

The table below lists all accepted abbreviations for classical music on Apple Music and iTunes. This list may be updated.




Catalog of the works of Carl Philipp Emmanuel Bach by Alfred Wotquenne


Hamburger Sonata in G Major for Flute and Continuo, Wq. 133

Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis catalog of the works of Johann Sebastian Bach by Wolfgang Schmieder (sometimes designated by “S.”)


Partita for Solo Flute in A Minor, BWV 1013

Catalog of the works of Béla Bartók by András Szöllösy


Concerto for Orchestra, Sz. 116

Catalog of the works of Luigi Boccherini by Yves Gérard


Concerto for Cello and Orchestra No. 6 in D Major, G. 479

Buxtehude-Werke-Verzeichnis catalog of the works of Dietrich Buxtehude by Georg Karstadt


Toccata in F Major, BuxWV 156

Catalog of the works of Marc-Antoine Charpentier by Wiley Hitchcock


Messe de minuit, H. 9

Catalog of the works of Claude Debussy by François Lesuré


La mer, L. 109

Catalog of the works of John Dowland by Diana Poulton


Galliard in G Minor, P. 30

Catalog of the works of Antonín Dvořák by Jarmil Burghauser


Symphony No. 9 in E Minor, Op. 98, B. 178 “From the New World”

Catalog of the works of Giovanni Gabrieli by Richard Charteris


Canzon Noni Toni a 12, C. 183

Catalog of the works of Louis Moreau Gottschalk by Robert Offergeld


Grande tarantelle for Piano and Orchestra, Op. 67, RO 259

Händel-Werke-Verzeichnis catalog of the works of George Frideric Handel by Bernd Baselt


The Messiah, HWV 56

Catalog of the works of Franz Joseph Haydn by Anthony van Hoboken


Symphony No. 101 in D Major, Hob. I:101 “The Clock”

Catalog of the works of Johann Michael Haydn by Lother Perger


Symphony in B-Flat Major, (P. 18)

Catalog of the works of Franz Liszt by Humphrey Searle


Liebestraum in A-Flat Major, S. 541 No. 3

Lully-Werke-Verzeichnis catalog of the works of Jean-Baptiste Lully by Max Schneider


Le bourgeois gentilhomme, LWV 43: Overture

Catalog of the works of Felix Mendelssohn


Double Concerto for Piano, Violin, and Orchestra in D Minor, MWV 04: I. Allegro

Catalog of the works of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart by Köchel


Requiem in D Minor, K. 626

Catalog of the works of Henry Purcell


Abdelazer Suite, Z. 570: II. Third Act Tune - Rondo

Catalog for the works of Maurice Ravel


Boléro, M. 81

Catalog of the works of Ottorino Respighi by Potito Pedarra


Pini di Roma (The Pines of Rome), P. 141

Catalog of the works of Giovanni Battista Sammartini by Newell Jenkins and Bathia Churgin


L’addolorata Divina Madre, J-C- 123

Catalog of the keyboard works of Domenico Scarlatti by Ralph Kirkpatrick


Keyboard Sonata in D Minor, Kk. 9

Catalog of the keyboard works of Domenico Scarlatti by Alessandro Longo


Sonata in B Minor, L. 147

Catalog of the works of Franz Schubert by Otto Erich Deutsch


Die Winterreise, D. 911

Schütz-Werke-Verzeichnis catalog of the works of Heinrich Schütz by Werner Bittinger


Saul, Saul, was verfolgst du mich, SWV 415

Catalog of the violin concertos of Giuseppe Tartini by Minos Dounias


Violin Concerto No. 4 in D Major, D. 15

Telemann-Werke-Verzeichnis catalog of the works of Georg Phillipp Telemann by Werner Menke and Martin Ruhnke


Fantasia for Solo Violin No. 1 in B-Flat Major, TWV 40:14

Catalog of the works of Giuseppe Torelli by Franz Giegling


Trumpet Sonata in D Major, G. 1

Catalog of the works of Heitor Villa-Lobos


Douze études pour guitare, W 235

Ryom-Verzeichnis catalog of the works of Antonio Vivaldi by Peter Ryom


The Four Seasons, Violin Concerto in E Major, RV 269 “Spring”

Catalog of the works of Carl Maria von Weber by Friedrich Wilhelm Jähns


Rondo brilliante, Op. 62, J. 252 “La gaite”

Derived from the Latin “deesse” meaning to be absent. This may follow the catalog abbreviation to designate a work which does not appear in that particular catalog (ex. K. deest). Plural is “desunt.”


Larghetto and Allegro for 2 Pianos in E-Flat Major, K. deest

“Werk ohne Opuszahl” or “Work without opus number,” typically unpublished works or works that were not assigned an opus number by the composer


Bagatelle in A Minor, WoO 59 “Für Elise”

“Opus number,” generally a chronological publication or composition number that may have been assigned by either the publisher or composer. Includes works from Ludwig van Beethoven, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, and Sergei Rachmaninoff.


Concerto for Violin and Orchestra in A Minor, Op. 53

Table 2: Classical Keys

Regional and language differences may affect the way that musical terms are notated. Apple Music and iTunes uses English as the standard language. When submitting metadata, refer to the following table for the list of acceptable keys.


C Major / C Minor / C-Sharp Minor

F-Sharp Major / F-Sharp Minor

F Major / F Minor

B Major / B Minor

B-Flat Major / B-Flat Minor

E Major / E Minor

E-Flat Major / E-Flat Minor

A Major / A Minor

A-Flat Major

D Major / D Minor / D-Sharp Minor

D-Flat Major

G Major / G Minor / G-Sharp Minor

G-Flat Major


Table 3: Common Composer Names

For composers who already have content available on Apple Music and the iTunes Store, use the existing spelling found there. For questions regarding the spelling of composer names, consult Baker’s Biographical Dictionary of Musicians or The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. The following table lists a few well-known composers.

Composer Names

Isaac Albéniz

Mikhail Glinka

Maurice Ravel

Johann Sebastian Bach

Christoph Willibald Gluck

Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov

Mily Balakirev

Edvard Grieg

Gioacchino Rossini

Béla Bartók

George Frideric Handel

Camille Saint-Saëns

Ludwig van Beethoven

Franz Joseph Haydn

Arnold Schoenberg

George Bizet

Vincent d’Indy

Franz Schubert

Alexander Borodin

Mikhail Ippolitov-Ivanov

Robert Schumann

Ferruccio Busoni

Leoš Janáček

Alexander Scriabin

Dietrich Buxtehude

Aram Khachaturian

Dmitri Shostakovich

Frédéric Chopin

Zoltán Kodály

Jean Sibelius

Francesco Ciléa

Édouard Lalo

Bedřich Smetana

César Cui

Orlando di Lasso

Johann Strauss II

Claude Debussy

Gustav Mahler

Igor Stravinsky

Léo Delibes

Felix Mendelssohn

Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky

Frederick Delius

Olivier Messiaen

Georg Philipp Telemann

Josquin Des Prez

Claudio Monteverdi

Edgard Varése

Antonín Dvořák

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Ralph Vaughan Williams

Sir Edward Elgar

Modest Mussorgsky

Tomás Luis de Victoria

Manuel de Falla

Niccolò Paganini

Hugo Wolf

Gabriel Fauré

Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina

Carl Maria von Weber

César Franck

Sergei Prokofiev

Anton Webern

Giovanni Gabrieli

Johann Joachim Quantz

Iannis Xenakis

Carlo Gesualdo

Sergei Rachmaninoff

Alexander von Zemlinsky

Alexander Glazunov



Table 4: Common Orchestra and Conductor Names

For questions regarding the spelling of orchestra and conductor names, consult Baker’s Biographical Dictionary of Musicians or The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. The following table lists a few well-known orchestras and conductors.



Academy of St. Martin in the Fields

Claudio Abbado

Berliner Philharmoniker

Marin Alsop

Boston Symphony Orchestra

Sir Thomas Beecham

Chicago Symphony Orchestra

Leonard Bernstein

Gewandhausorchester Leipzig

Karl Böhm

London Philharmonic Orchestra

Sir Colin Davis

London Symphony Orchestra

Wilhelm Furtwängler

Los Angeles Philharmonic

Valery Gergiev

Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment

Herbert von Karajan

Orchestra dell'Accademia di Santa Cecilia

James Levine

Orchestre de l'Opéra de Paris

Kurt Masur

Philadelphia Orchestra

Sir Neville Marriner

Philharmonia Orchestra

Riccardo Muti

Saint Louis Symphony Orchestra

Seiji Ozawa

San Francisco Symphony

Sir Georg Solti

Wiener Philharmoniker

Bruno Walter

Appendix 2: Title Case

This section applies to titles in English only. For general cases not addressed in this guide, refer to The Chicago Manual of Style.

The following words must be in lowercase, with a few exceptions:

  • a, an, and, as, but, for, from, nor, of, or, so, the, to, and yet.

  • Prepositions of four letters or fewer (at, by, for, from, in, into, of, off, on, onto, out, over, to, up, and with), except when the word is part of a verb phrase or is used as another part of speech (such as an adverb, adjective, noun, or verb).

For example:

  • In the Still of the Night

  • (You Make Me Feel Like A) Natural Woman

  • To Be, or Not to Be

  • The One and Only

  • God Willing & the Creek Don't Rise

  • Some Kind of Trouble

  • Love: And a Million Other Things

  • Journey: Greatest Hits

  • I Need a Doctor

  • Just the Way You Are

  • Waiting for the End

  • The Ballad of Mona Lisa

  • Lost in a Pair of Eyes

  • I Got The - Single

  • The Love I’m Searching For

Exceptions for Lowercase Words

Always capitalize the first and last word in a title. Capitalize the first and last word in parentheses. For example:

  • To Be, or Not to Be

  • What They're Looking For

  • War (What Is It Good For?)

  • (You Make Me Feel Like A) Natural Woman

These rules also apply for purposely misspelled words.

  • In da House

  • Kill 'Em n' Grill 'Em

  • It's fo' Realz

Uppercase Words in Title Case

Are, If, Is, It, Than, That, This

What’s New in This Version?

The current version of the Music Style Guide, updated August 2020, contains the following changes:

  • Renamed iTunes Music Style Guide. Renamed to Apple Music Style Guide.

  • Regrouped specialized guidelines. Moved specialized guide sections into Essentials, Artists, Titles, and Genres, where possible.

  • Clarified guidelines around contributor roles. Requirement to list Composer/Lyricist/Songwriter/Various Artists, and Technical Personnel and Other Contributor roles. List exact role instead of defaulting as performer. For example, Guitar, Drums, and so on.

  • Clarified guideline for Editorial Hide reason: Refusal. Other Content Not Permitted. Content will be hidden using the reason, Refusal.

  • Added subsections. Added additional subsections to Artists, Titles, Music Videos, and Classical Guidelines sections.

  • Revised regional sections and subsections. Europe, Russia, and Central Asia Language Guidelines and Asia-Pacific Language Guidelines.

  • Renamed Section. Cover Art and Booklet Art Policies renamed Artwork.

  • Combined Specialized Sections:

    • 4. Soundtracks, Scores, and Albums in a Series (see 2.16, 3.9, 3.17)

    • 5. Crediting Featuring Artists (see 2.11)

    • 6. Titles with “vs.” and “Meets” (see 2.5)

    • 7. Presenting Artists (see 2.5, 2.13)

    • 8. Karaoke, Tribute, Japanese Orgel, Parody, and Cover Albums (see 1.16, 2.10, 3.17)

    • 9. Mixes and Remixes (see 1.16, 2.2-2.6, and 3.15)

    • 10. Capitalization, Abbreviations, Accents, and Characters (see 3.9, 3.22, and 9.1-9.5)

    • 13. Complete and Partial Albums (see 1.4)

    • 15. Automatically Censored Word (see 6.3)

    • 17. Snippets and Advertisement Tracks (see 1.16)

    • 18. Ringtones (see 1.16 and 3.2)

    • 20-28. Additional Standards and Guidelines for Classical Music (see 11.1-11.14)

    • 29-33. Bangladeshi, Indian, Nepalese, Pakistani, and Sri Lankan Content (see 9.8-9.11)

    • 34. Russian, Belarusian, Bulgarian, and Ukrainian Metadata Guidelines (see 9.6 and 9.7)

    • 35-36. Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Thai Metadata Guidelines (see 10.1-10.5)

    • 37. Hebrew Metadata Guidelines (see 1.8)

    • 38. Arabic and Farsi Metadata Guidelines (see 1.8)

    • 39. Jazz Metadata Guidelines (see 2.11 and 2.12)